How to adjust the tilt angle of the solar panel to get the maximum solar energy
The proposal applies to any type of panel that gets energy from the sun: photovoltaic, solar energy system, and especially our photovoltaic solar system for home use.
We assume that the panel is fixed, or there is a slope that can be adjusted seasonally. (Tracking the entire sun movement of the panel can be more than the fixed panel of energy to get 10% (winter) to 40% (summer), this article does not discuss the tracking panel.)
If you're in the northern hemisphere, solar panels should always faces the real South, if you are in the southern hemisphere, solar panels should be truly south. North and magnetic north is not the same. If you use a compass directional panel is need to correct different differences vary. The correct angle on the Internet search for "magnetic" to find your location.
The next question is, what angle should the panel be tilted? Books and articles on solar energy often suggest that the tilt should be equal to your latitude, 15 degrees in winter and 15 degrees in summer. Facts have proved that about 4% reduction is better than this.
Fixed or adjustable?
It is easiest to install your solar panels in a fixed, tilted position. However, due to the high summer sun and lower winter, you can adjust the slope of the panel according to the season, you can capture more energy throughout the year.
In short, adjusting the tilt twice a year can effectively boost energy. It can only be a little more than four times a year, but it may be important if you need to optimize production in spring and autumn.
If your solar panel will have a fixed tilt angle, and you want to get the most energy in the year, then you can take a look at this paragraph.Fixed angle is very convenient, but there are some shortcomings. As mentioned above, you will get a smaller power than the adjustment angle. In addition, if you live in a snowy place, adjust the panel to a steep angle in winter. Snow-covered panels produce little or no electricity.
If your latitude is less than 25 °, multiply the latitude by 0.87.
If your latitude is between 25 ° and 50 °, multiply the latitude by 0.76 plus 3.1 degrees.
Adjust the tilt twice a year
If you want to adjust the tilt of the solar panels every year, and hope to get the most energy throughout the year, then you should take a look at this paragraph.
If your latitude is between 25°and 50°, the best dip in summer is latitude by 0.93 and minus 21 degrees. The best inclination in winter is latitude multiplied by 0.875, plus 19.2 degrees.If your latitude is outside this range, please read the rest of the situation below.
Adjust the tilt four times a year
If you want to adjust the tilt of the solar panel four times a year and want to get the most energy in the year, if you connect to the grid and can use or sell all the power you produce, this section will be what you have to read.
If your latitude is between 25° and 50°, the optimum inclination is:
In summer, multiply latitude by 0.92, minus 24.3 degrees
In spring and fall, take latitude by 0.98, minus 2.3 degrees
For winter, take latitude by 0.89 and add 24 degrees
In winter, panels fixed at winter angles will be relatively effective, accounting for 81% to 88% of energy compared to optimum tracking. In spring, summer and autumn are less efficient (spring / autumn is 74-75%, summer is 68-74%), because in these seasons, the Sun runs a larger sky area, and the fixed panel can not capture much of its energy. These are the most favorable seasons for tracking systems.
Please note that the winter angle is about 5 degrees more than the usual recommended angle. The reason is that in the winter most of the solar energy is at noon, so this group should be directed almost at noon to the sun. This angle is fine tuned so that the maximum amount of energy is collected in a single day.
The summer angle is generally about 12 degrees recommended. In fact, at 25 degrees summer, the panels should actually deviate slightly from the equator.
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